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Algerian historian Mohammed Harbia former FLN member, believes that comparison between Harkis and traitors or "collaborators" is not pertinent. A few rose to positions of prominence, site de rencontre pieds noirs, such as the former President, Ferhat Abbas. Some leaders of the new Algerian Republic were veterans of the French Army, which prior to independence had provided one of the few avenues for advancement open to the Muslim majority in colonial society. By there were about Algerian Muslim officers in the French Army, although only one had achieved promotion to the rank of general. They generally served either in all-Algerian units commanded site de rencontre pieds noirs French officers or in mixed units.



They played an important part during the Franco-Prussian War of and especially during World War I , when , died in fighting against the Imperial German Army. They made a major contribution during the liberation of Southern France and in the campaigns in Italy French Expeditionary Corps and Germany of Some of the regular units were transferred from Algeria to France or Germany following increased incidences of desertion or small-scale mutiny.

As a partial replacement, the French administration recruited the Harkis as irregular militia based in their home villages or towns throughout Algeria. Initially raised as self-defence units, the Harkis, from on, increasingly served alongside the French Army in the field.

They were lightly armed often only with shotguns , but their knowledge of local terrain and conditions made them valuable auxiliaries to French regular units. According to General R. Hure, by approximately , Muslim Algerians served in the French Army or as auxiliaries. In addition to volunteers and conscripts serving in regular units, this total took into account 95, Harkis including 20, in separate mokhazni district police forces and 15, in commando de chasse tracking units.

According to US Army data, possibly compiled at a different date, the Harkis numbered about ,, more than the total FLN effectives. The remaining 50, included Muslim government officials and veterans of the French Army. They generally served either in all-Algerian units commanded by French officers or in mixed units. Others were employed in platoon - or below-sized units attached to French battalions. A third use involved Harkis in intelligence-gathering roles, with some reported minor false-flag operations in support of intelligence collection.

Unemployment was wide-spread amongst the Muslim population, especially in rural districts. The FLN had attacked members of rival nationalist groups as well as pro-French Muslim collaborators; and some Algerians enrolled in the Harkis to avenge the deaths of relatives who had been political opponents of the FLN.

Others defected from the FLN rebel forces, persuaded by one means or another to change sides. Many Harkis came from families or other groups who had traditionally given service to France. After the war[ edit ] In the French government of Charles de Gaulle originally ordered officials and army officers to prevent the Harkis from following the Pieds-Noirs and seeking refuge in metropolitan France. Some officers of the French army disobeyed and tried to assist the Harkis under their command - as well as their families - to escape from Algeria.

About 91, Harkis including family members did find refuge in France. On the other hand, the OAS far-right terrorist group initiated a campaign of bombings in Algeria following the Evian Accords to block the Pieds-Noirs population from leaving the country.

As feared, widespread reprisals took place against those Harkis who remained in Algeria. Hundreds died when put to work clearing the minefields along the Morice Line , or were shot out of hand. Others were tortured atrociously; army veterans were made to dig their own tombs, then swallow their decorations before being killed; they were burned alive, or castrated, or dragged behind trucks, or cut to pieces and their flesh fed to dogs.

Many were put to death with their entire families, including young children. Some leaders of the new Algerian Republic were veterans of the French Army, which prior to independence had provided one of the few avenues for advancement open to the Muslim majority in colonial society.

By there were about Algerian Muslim officers in the French Army, although only one had achieved promotion to the rank of general. Charles de Gaulle appears to have been indifferent to the plight of the Muslim loyalists according to Horne, who reported that the president remarked to one of their spokesmen "Eh bien!

The Harkis were kept in "temporary" internment camps surrounded by barbed wire, such as the Camp de Rivesaltes Joffre Camp in Rivesaltes outside of Perpignan and in "chantiers de forestage" communities of 30 Harki families on the outskirts of forests which the men maintained.

The French government has since enacted various measures to help the Harki community notably the Romani law and the Mekachera law ; although in the views of community leaders these laws are often too little, too late.

The French government of Jacques Chirac subsequently acknowledged these former allies, holding public ceremonies to commemorate their sacrifices, such as the 25 September Day of National Recognition for the Harkis.

For its part, the Algerian government does not recognize the Harkis as French citizens. It does not permit them to enter Algeria to visit their birth-places or family members left behind in that country.

Algerian historian Mohammed Harbi , a former FLN member, believes that comparison between Harkis and traitors or "collaborators" is not pertinent. He later claimed he had been referring to a specific individual in the crowd, but was fined 15, Euros for the statement. In this context, the latter term refers to the sub-group of Algerians who became closely identified with the French and their culture it also refers to similar groups in other colonial territories.

A few rose to positions of prominence, such as the former President, Ferhat Abbas.



Femen Le logo represente la lettre (initiale de Femen en ukrainien) avec les couleurs du drapeau ukrainien, tout en symbolisant des seins nus. Vous etes sur le site d'anciens eleves de ce que l'on appelait: Alger-Centre. C'etait un perimetre delimite par d'autres quartiers a la personnalite mieux definie: Le Hamma, Belcourt, Bab-el-Oued, El-Biar, la Casbah.

Total 2 comments.
#1 09.10.2018 03:24 Faez-Flejeh:
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#2 17.10.2018 08:36 Alternity:
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