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The Bretons won another war inand the kingdom reached then its maximum extent: Indeed, some Breton lords were fighting on the French side. Several Breton lords helped William the Conqueror to invade England and received large estates there e. However, rencontres musicales des graves, the audience of these movements remained very low and their ideas did not reach a large public until the 20th century. However, Brittany lost the Mad War against France inmostly because of its internal divisions which were exacerbated rencontres musicales des graves the corruption at the court of Francis II, Duke of Brittany.



These realms eventually merged into a single state during the 9th century. His son Erispoe secured the independence of the new kingdom of Brittany and won the Battle of Jengland against Charles the Bald. The Bretons won another war in , and the kingdom reached then its maximum extent: Brittany was heavily attacked by the Vikings at the beginning of the 10th century.

The kingdom lost its eastern territories, including Normandy and Anjou , and the county of Nantes was given to Fulk I of Anjou in Several Breton lords helped William the Conqueror to invade England and received large estates there e.

Some of these lords were powerful rivals. Medieval Brittany was far from being a united nation. The French king maintained envoys in Brittany, alliances contracted by local lords often overlapped and there was no specific Breton consciousness. For example, Brittany replaced Latin with French as its official language in the 13th century, years before France did so itself, and the Breton language never had any formal status.

The foreign policy of the duchy changed many times; the dukes were usually independent but they often contracted alliances with England or France. Their support for each nation became very important during the 14th century, because the English kings then started to claim the French throne. However, Brittany lost the Mad War against France in , mostly because of its internal divisions which were exacerbated by the corruption at the court of Francis II, Duke of Brittany.

Indeed, some Breton lords were fighting on the French side. Union with the French Crown and modern period[ edit ] Main article: Union of Brittany and France Anne of Brittany is regarded in Brittany as a conscientious ruler who defended the duchy against France. Nonetheless, she married the Holy Roman Emperor in , but this led to a severe crisis with France.

He eventually married Anne of Brittany. After he died childless, the duchess had to marry his heir and cousin Louis XII. Anne unsuccessfully tried to preserve Breton independence, but she died in and the union between the two crowns was formally carried out by Francis I in He granted several privileges to Brittany, such as exemption from the gabelle , a tax on salt which was very unpopular in France.

From the 15th to the 18th century, Brittany reached an economic golden age. Saint-Malo was then known for its corsairs , Brest was a major base for the French Navy and Nantes flourished with the Atlantic slave trade.

On its side, the inland provided hemp ropes and canvas and linen sheets. However, Colbertism , which encouraged the creation of many factories, did not favour the Breton industry because most of the royal factories were opened in other provinces. Moreover, several conflicts between France and England led the latter to restrain its trade, and the Breton economy went into recession during the 18th century. Two significant revolts occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries: Both arose from attempts to resist centralisation and assert Breton constitutional exceptions to tax.

The Duchy was legally abolished during the French Revolution , in , and divided into five departments. Brittany also lost all its privileges. Three years later, the area became a centre of royalist and Catholic resistance to the Revolution during the Chouannerie. During the 19th century, Brittany remained in economic recession, and many Bretons emigrated to other French regions, particularly to Paris.

This trend remained strong until the beginning of the 20th century. Nonetheless, the region was also modernising, with new roads and railways being built, and some places being industrialised.

Nantes specialised in shipbuilding and food processing sugar, exotic fruits and vegetables, fish The region remained deeply Catholic, and during the Second Empire , the conservative values were strongly reasserted. When the Republic was re-established in , there were rumours that Breton troops were mistrusted and mistreated at Camp Conlie during the Franco-Prussian War because of fears that they were a threat to the Republic.

During the 19th century, the Breton language started to decline precipitously, mainly because of the Francization policy conducted under the Third Republic. On one hand, children were not allowed to speak Breton at school, and were punished by teachers if they did.

Famously, signs in schools read: The Amoco Cadiz oil spill in deeply marked Breton people. However, the audience of these movements remained very low and their ideas did not reach a large public until the 20th century. The Seiz Breur movement, created in , permitted a Breton artistic revival [31] but its ties with Nazism and the collaborationism of the Breton National Party during World War II weakened Breton nationalism in the post-war period.

Brittany lost , men during the First World War. However, the areas around Saint-Nazaire and Lorient only surrendered on 10 and 11 May , several days after the German capitulation. The two port towns had been virtually destroyed by Allied air raids, like Brest and Saint-Malo , and other towns, such as Nantes and Rennes , had also suffered.

In , Brittany was legally reconstituted as the Region of Brittany , although the region excluded the ducal capital of Nantes and the surrounding area. Nevertheless, Brittany retained its cultural distinctiveness, and a new cultural revival emerged during the s and s.

Bilingual schools were opened, singers started to write songs in Breton, and ecological catastrophes such as the Amoco Cadiz oil spill or the Erika oil spill and water pollution because of intensive pig farming favoured new movements to protect the natural heritage.

They were often called "pays" or "bro" "country" in French and Breton and they also served as fiscal and military districts. The historical Breton dioceses were:



Brittany has been inhabited by humans since the Lower reviewmelnm.cf first settlers were reviewmelnm.cf population was scarce and very similar to the other Neanderthals found in the whole of Western Europe. Les grandes filles ne pleurent pas elle se vengent Big Girls Don't Cry They Get Even Kati et Steffi sont amies depuis leur enfance. La relation subira des contrecoups lorsque Steffi decouvre que son pere n'a pas ete toujours un bon.

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