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Merlet suggests that this charter indicates that Robert "le Fort" was Comte de Blois at the time [30]. This may be based on the 21 Rencontre civray 86 donation of Rebais abbey to the church of Paris which refers to "comitis Rotberti et Adele comitisse" [77]. This change of jurisdictional status must have been insufficient to control the Bretons and the Vikings because Robert is named in the Annales Bertiniani in in the context of King Charles imposing direct rule in the area by sending "Hludowicum filium suum" into "Neustriam" and granting him "comitatum Andegavensem et abbatiam Maioris-monasterii et quasdam villas illi", rencontre civray 86, while recording that Robert was compensated with "comitatum Autissiodorensem et comitatum Nivernensem". From a chronological point of view, it appears that both cases are possible. According to Settipani, the charter is a forgery [63]. King Eudes refers to his unnamed children in according to Settipani, who does not cite the primary source on which this is based [59], rencontre civray 86.



The parentage of Robert "le Fort" is obscure. Some general indications of his origin are found in near contemporary sources, but these are contradictory. A Saxon origin is suggested by two sources: Other early sources specifically state that nothing is known of the origins of Robert, for example Rodulphus Glaber "cuius genus…oscurum" [8].

However, there are two possible interpretations of the dating clause of this document. If it refers to Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks, whose reign is normally dated from the death of his father in Jun , the year would be [] the year after Robert "le Fort" died. Another possibility is that the clause refers to Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks, in which case the year would be , indicating that the donor was the future Robert I King of France, rather than Robert "le Fort", although this would not change the significance of the relationship described "avunculus" could also have been used in the document in the sense of "great-uncle".

It should be emphasised that this hypothesis is speculative. No primary source has yet been found which points specifically towards this suggested co-identity, although it is consistent with the Franconian origin referred to by the Annales Xantenses and by Widukind, as noted above.

It is assumed that the suggestion is based primarily on onomastics, although the first secondary source which proposed the connection has not yet been identified and therefore has not been checked. The timing of the supposed arrival of Robert from Franconia, assuming that the co-identity is correct, is not ideal either. King Ludwig invaded in Aug , when King Charles was faced with widespread rebellion, and was defeated in Jan Such indications are provided by Regino who names "Waltgerius comes, nepos Odonis regis, filius scilicet avunculi eius Adalhelmi in Aquitanien" when recording his battle against "Ramnulfum et fratrem eius Gozbertum et Ebulonem abbatum de sancto Dionysio " in Jul , and names "Megingaudus comes, nepos supradicti Odonis regis [son of Robert "le Fort"]" when recording his death, also in [11].

It cites no corresponding primary source, but presumably the suggestion is based on the Miraculis Sancti Genulfi which names "Agana filia…Byturicensium comes…Wifredus [et]…Oda coniux" as wife of "Roberto viro primoque palatii Pipini regis" [14]. Could it be possible therefore that he was the same person as Robert "le Fort"? If this was the case, it would be consistent with the Saxon origin which is suggested by Richer and by the Miracula Sancti Benedicti see above.

The Saxon connection of the latter family is suggested by the name Theoderic nine different individuals named Theoderic have been identified in the family , which was first recorded in Saxony in the family of Widukind by Einhard in see the document SAXONY. As noted above, the dating clause of this document may either refer to King Charles II "le Chauve" or to Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks, in the latter case the donor being the future Robert I King of France not Robert "le Fort", although this would not change the significance of the relationship described "avunculus" could also have been used in the document in the sense of "great-uncle".

Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks restored property to Hincmar Archbishop of Reims which he had previously granted to his supporters, including property granted to "…Rotbertus…", by charter dated 1 Oct [21]. This co-identity is not beyond doubt. The Annales Bertiniani record that "Rodbertus" attacked "Salomone duce" [duke of Brittany] in [26].

This change of jurisdictional status must have been insufficient to control the Bretons and the Vikings because Robert is named in the Annales Bertiniani in in the context of King Charles imposing direct rule in the area by sending "Hludowicum filium suum" into "Neustriam" and granting him "comitatum Andegavensem et abbatiam Maioris-monasterii et quasdam villas illi", while recording that Robert was compensated with "comitatum Autissiodorensem et comitatum Nivernensem".

Merlet suggests that this charter indicates that Robert "le Fort" was Comte de Blois at the time [30]. However, another possibility is that the county indicated was the "march of Anjou" to which Robert had been appointed count some years before see above.

The Annales Bertiniani record that "Rotbertum et Ramnulfum, Godtfridum quoque et Heriveum comites" were defeated by the Vikings at "Brieserta" in , where Robert was killed [33]. The Adonis Continuatio records that "Robertus quoque atque Ramnulfus…inter primos ipsi priores" were killed by the Vikings in [34].

One possibility can be dismissed immediately: The primary source on which this is based is not noted, but as stated above, it is probably the Miraculis Sancti Genulfi which names "Agana filia…Byturicensium comes…Wifredus [et]…Oda coniux" as wife of "Roberto viro primoque palatii Pipini regis" [37]. If this co-identity is correct, Agane would have been too old to have been the mother of the recorded children of Robert "le Fort". There is no indication who she might have been, apart from the charter dated 20 Feb "anno XXVII regnante domino Carolo…rege" which is discussed above.

If, in accordance with one of the possibilities suggested above, the dating clause in this document refers to the reign of Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks, the donor must have been the future Robert I King of France. Settipani states that the passage is a 12th century interpolation and has little historical value, although he does suggest that it is likely that the wife of Comte Robert was a close relation of Adelais without providing the reasoning for his statement [40].

A family connection between Comte Robert and Conrad Comte de Paris is also suggested by the former being invested with the county of Auxerre in , after this county was confiscated from the latter as recorded by Hincmar [41] , on the assumption that there was some basis of heredity behind the transmission of counties in France at that time which is probable, but remains unproven.

Abbot of Saint-Martin de Tours: King Eudes defeated the Normans at Montfaucon-en-Argonne 24 Jun , after which he was recognised as king by Arnulf King of the East Franks who sent royal insignia for a second consecration at Reims 13 Nov [49]. He was succeeded by the Carolingian Charles III "le Simple", who had been consecrated as anti-king at Reims 28 Jan , as recorded in the agreement reached in between the two adversaries after Eudes defeated Charles [50].

The primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. Settipani says that it has no historical basis [55]. Nevertheless, Theoderic, supposed son of Adelramn [II], was a strong supporter of King Eudes, as recorded in the Annales Vedastini [56] , which is best explained by a family connection: She married secondly Otto. These two sources make it clear that "viro suo Hattone" named in the second cannot refer to Eudes King of France, who would not have been called "Otto comes" in the first.

King Eudes refers to his unnamed children in according to Settipani, who does not cite the primary source on which this is based [59]. This is the only source so far identified which mentions Arnoul. According to Settipani, the charter is a forgery [63].

Eudes King of France granted the abbey of Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers to the bishop of Poitiers, at the request of "marchiones…Hrobertus…atque Ademarus", by charter dated to [] [69].

Attonis vicecomitis, Guarnegaudi vicecomitis, Fulconis vicecomitis, Rainaldi vicecomitis King Robert was killed fighting ex-King Charles, although his forces won the battle: The necrology of Auxerre cathedral records that "Rotbertus rex" was killed in battle 15 Jun [75]. This may be based on the 21 May donation of Rebais abbey to the church of Paris which refers to "comitis Rotberti et Adele comitisse" [77]. However, as shown below, this is more likely to refer to Robert and his daughter than to his wife.

The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to "comitis Heriberti gener…Roberti" and in a later passage to the sister of "dux Hugo Cappatus" as the wife of "comitis Heriberti de Peroni, Campanie et Veromandie" but does not name her [82]. Her origin is confirmed by Flodoard naming "Hugo dux cum nepotibus suis, Heriberti filiis" in [83].

Her birth date is estimated from the birth of her first child in []. Her name is deduced as follows. The 21 May donation of Rebais abbey to the church of Paris refers to "comitis Rotberti et Adele comitisse" [84].

This reasoning appears based firstly on Hugues already being married in [], and secondly on the probability of his having reached the age of majority when he was recognised as duke in The document is therefore explained as referring to Robert and his elder daughter. The issue, however, is not beyond doubt, especially if the document in question was misdated. EMMA -2 Nov Flodoard names "Emma regis Rotberti filia" when recording that she obliged Seulf Archbishop of Reims to consecrate her as queen at Reims in in the absence of her husband fighting [85].

From a chronological point of view, it appears that both cases are possible. Flodoard records the death of "Emma regina" at the end of his passage dated [88]. Flodoard names "Rodulfo filio Richardi" [90]. He is named "Rodulfo rex filio meo" in the grant of "Adeleydis comitissa soror Rodulfi" to Cluny dated 14 Jun [91].

He succeeded his father in as Duke of Burgundy. The necrology of Auxerre cathedral records the death 14 Jan of "Rodulphus rex" [96].



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